2022: Vol 9 No 5

2022: Vol 9 No 5
  • Nevena Preveden, Matthias E Liechti, Tobias Oettl, Stefan Erb
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    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a heterogenous entity with a wide range of pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical manifestations. DILI is a diagnosis of exclusion. Metamizole (dipyrone) is an analgesic increasingly used in Europe, but there is limited information on its adverse effects. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with acute fever, malaise and general deterioration. Onset of symptoms occurred 12 hours after intake of metamizole for shoulder pain. The patient’s medical history was remarkable for three episodes of an inflammatory syndrome with hepatitis of unknown aetiology during the previous 3 years. However, retrospective enquiry showed each episode was preceded by metamizole intake shortly before symptom onset. Relevant differential diagnoses such as infection, vasculitis, autoimmune or metabolic diseases were excluded. Liver biopsy was compatible with DILI. Discontinuation of metamizole led to rapid clinical improvement and normalization of liver transaminases.
    Metamizole is a very rare and poorly known cause of DILI with only a few published case reports in the literature. Careful medical history taking is important to identify the causative agent. Prompt recognition and discontinuation of the drug is crucial. Patients must be informed to avoid this medication in future.

  • Bruno Sousa, Rosa Alves, Catarina Pestana Santos, Tiago Judas Matos
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    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLGE) is an uncommon condition with a multifactorial origin, that is characterized by excessive loss of serum proteins into the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in hypoproteinaemia and oedema. 

    The authors present the case of a 24-year-old man admitted to hospital for a 2-month history of lower extremity oedema and diarrhoea with a secretory pattern. Blood analysis revealed hypoalbuminaemia and iron deficiency anaemia. Liver disease and severe proteinuria were excluded as possible aetiologies. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed signs of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis. After completion of H. pylori eradication, the patient had complete resolution of clinical and laboratory abnormalities.

    The results suggest the need to consider less frequent aetiologies for peripheral oedema and hypoproteinaemia, such as PLGE, especially those caused by prevalent bacterial agents like H. pylori. 

  • Inês Costa, Joana Reis, Sara Meireles, Maria João Ribeiro, Isabel Augusto, Miguel Barbosa
    Views: 645
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    Prostate cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in men worldwide. Despite the improvement in survival achieved by increasingly early diagnosis and advances in treatment, it is still associated with high mortality. Because of its molecular heterogeneity, there is a need to identify genetic alterations in order to apply targeted therapies. Increasing evidence suggests that the PARP inhibitor olaparib could have a significant synthetic lethal effect in prostate cancer with homologous recombination defects, such as BRCA1/2 mutations. It is not yet known if, under these circumstances, platinum-based chemotherapy induces higher response rates in prostate cancer. We present the case of a patient with BRCA2-mutated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer whose treatment sequence included carboplatin and olaparib.

  • Matilde Bandeira, Juliana Serrazina, Carolina António Santos, Nuno Jacinto, António Pais de Lacerda
    Views: 416
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    SARS-CoV-2 infection can present in different clinical forms, most commonly as bilateral pneumonia, but also with pericardial/myocardial involvement. Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 is associated with worse outcomes.
    The authors report a case of myopericarditis as the primary manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 20-year-old male patient with no known cardiovascular (CV) disorders or risk factors. 
    The patient presented with pleuritic chest pain and high fever, with no respiratory symptoms. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram changes were consistent with pericarditis; concomitant elevation of cardiac enzymes revealed myocardial involvement. The patient had a slow but favourable evolution with no apparent impact on cardiac function. Other causes of myopericarditis were excluded and SARS-CoV-2 admitted as the most likely aetiological agent. 
    This case highlights possible cardiac involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection with little or no pulmonary disease in a young healthy patient. Such systemic and potentially troublesome manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly being described.

  • Martine Kai, Christian Matta, Georges Jalkh, Youmna Abdallah, Fady Haddad, Halim Abboud
    Views: 596
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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease with different clinical manifestations. Bulbar symptoms such as dysarthria and dysphagia are common in MS patients with advanced secondary progressive disease. However, they are not common at disease onset. We present the case of a 17-year-old male who initially presented with vomiting, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The investigations led to the diagnosis of MS, with an active lesion in the brainstem, more specifically in the area postrema region. Differential diagnoses were eliminated. The patient received intravenous methylprednisolone resulting in amelioration of symptoms. Treatment with fingolimod was started after discharge. The recognition of MS with atypical onsets is important to make an early accurate diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment for a disease known to be one of the most common causes of neurologic disability in young adults.

  • Athina Dimosiari, Dimitrios Patoulias, Theodoros Michailidis, Theodoros Dimitroulas
    Views: 538
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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is associated with a high incidence of thrombotic complications involving both the arterial and the venous systems. However, concurrent arterial and venous thrombosis is extremely rare. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old male patient with severe COVID-19 who developed bilateral renal artery thrombosis and pulmonary embolism during the disease course. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature.

  • Ena Arora, Vaidehi Mujumdar, Alexander Martin, Sandeep Tuli
    Views: 533
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    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a relatively rare, but serious disease more commonly seen in puerperal patients. In the postpartum period, there is an unequal incidence of OVT in women with vaginal delivery (0.18%) and caesarean section (2.0%).OVT is usually associated with other conditions like pelvic inflammatory disease, malignant tumours, sepsis, enteritis, and recent pelvic or abdominal surgery. The incidence of idiopathic OVT is extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported to date in healthy patients with unknown aetiology. Patients with OVT present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever or abdominal mass. Complications of OVT include pulmonary embolism, ovarian infarction, sepsis and death. CT scanning of the abdomen provides reliable evidence for the diagnosis of idiopathic OVT. Thrombus in most patients with idiopathic OVT is located in the right ovarian vein. This may be due to the longer length of the right ovarian vein, right shift of the uterus and relative insufficiency of the right ovarian vein valve. Treatment of OVT includes systemic anticoagulation which will achieve resolution of symptoms and prevent life-threatening complications. Our case report documents a non-puerperal patient who underwent hysterectomy a year before presenting to the ED with complaints of diarrhoea and found to have OVT on a CT scan. Our case brings attention to the fact that OVT can occur outside the puerperium and might present as a rare complication of minimally invasive surgeries for endometrial cancer. Furthermore, we posit that OVT in the non-puerperal patient may be a separate clinical entity.

  • Raghu Tiperneni, Farhan Khalid, Harshil Fichadiya, Ahmad Al-Alwan, Gaurav Mohan, Farah Heis
    Views: 350
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    Prothrombin time (PT), first used in 1935, is the most commonly employed marker of coagulopathy to assess bleeding tendency. It is a screening test and measures the time in seconds to the formation of a clot after platelet-poor plasma has been mixed with a thromboplastin reagent consisting of tissue factor, lipids and calcium chloride ions. The International Normalized Ratio (INR) is a standardized number based on the PT of the patient. It is used by clinicians to measure the effectiveness of anticoagulants and to guide therapy. Drugs such as warfarin can affect the level of or the metabolism of vitamin K in the body, which can impact PT and INR levels. A supratherapeutic INR is rare in a patient not on therapy with vitamin K inhibitors and with preserved liver function. Here we describe an elderly man with a supratherapeutic INR, secondary to the use of rifampin. Antibiotic-induced coagulopathy is an extremely rare complication. To the authors' knowledge, this is a unique case of rifampin-induced coagulopathy with no other associated complications of disseminated intravascular coagulation. A literature review revealed a small number of cases of rifampicin-induced coagulopathy. A high index of suspicion and knowledge is essential for the diagnosis and management of such cases.

  • Amélie Castiaux, Irina Vierasu, Frederic Vandergheynst, Serge Goldman
    Views: 247
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    A 72-year-old woman, with anti-myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), presented with two episodes of spinal pachymeningitis (at two different levels 9 years apart, cervical in 2011 and dorso-lumbar in 2020) associated with aortitis and only demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). This association between aortitis and pachymeningitis in AAV appears exceptional. Moreover, the relapse of aortitis and pachymeningitis in 2020 was not accompanied by an increase in ANCA.
    This case demonstrates the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of AAV, providing evidence of the recurrence and distribution of lesions in various organs, including those with unexpected involvement.

  • Nader Mekheal, Mina Fransawy Alkomos, Sherif Roman, Erinie Mekheal, Alisa Farokhian, Christopher Millet, Hardikkumar Shah, Gabriel Melki, Walid Baddoura
    Views: 475
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    Hemosuccus pancreaticus (HP) is defined as bleeding from the ampulla of Vater through the pancreatic duct. It is a rare complication associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis. The source of bleeding can be from the pancreas itself or surrounding vessels, with the splenic artery most commonly involved. Diagnosing HP is challenging and computed tomography angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with recurrent pancreatitis complicated with HP. Imaging and endoscopy were consistent with bleeding from the section portion of the duodenum, which resolved without intervention.

  • Elenjickal Elias John, Sanjeet Roy, Selvin Sundar Raj Mani, Jeethu Joseph Eapen, Utkarash Mishra , Santosh Varughese
    Views: 513
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    Dual anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) characterized by the presence of both anti-proteinase-3 (PR3-ANCA) and anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) antibodies is a rare clinical entity. Only few cases have been reported previously, most of which were associated with infections, drugs, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Herein, we describe a young woman who presented with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with hypocomplementemia and markedly elevated anti-PR3 and anti-MPO titres. Meticulous work-up ruled out all possible secondary causes. Renal biopsy showed the presence of focal fibrocellular crescents with focal mesangial hypercellularity. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed pauci-immune deposits. The patient was treated with an induction regimen comprising oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. She attained both clinical and serological remission at 3 months and is currently on an azathioprine-based maintenance regimen. We have extensively reviewed all previous cases of dual AAV and have formulated an approach to diagnose and treat this rare entity.

  • Harshil Fichadiya, Gaurav Mohan, Nimit Dalal, Hardik Fichadiya, Ahmad Al-Alwan, Raghu Tiperneni, Farhan Khalid, Ramon Lopez Del Valle
    Views: 835
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    HIV infection is associated with multisystemic manifestations due both to secondary infections caused by a decrease in the CD4+ T-cell count and to the pathogenicity of the HIV virus itself. A common renal manifestation is HIV-associated nephropathy, which is frequently seen in the African population with the APOL1 gene mutation; however, other forms of glomerulopathy such as IgA nephropathy, commonly noted in other ethnicities, are also seen. Vasculitis has rarely been associated with HIV infection and mainly involves small blood vessels, although any size of blood vessel may be involved. The association of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) with HIV is rare and not well understood. We describe a 53-year-old African American woman with a newly diagnosed HIV infection who presented with a purpuric rash over the bilateral lower extremities with haematuria. Initial work-up revealed renal dysfunction with elevated ESR. Urinalysis was positive for glomerular haematuria and sub-nephrotic range proteinuria. Serum complement level, c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), p-ANCA and anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) were negative. Renal biopsy revealed mesangial IgA deposits with crescent glomerulopathy and fibrinoid necrosis, while skin biopsy revealed leucocytoclastic vasculitis. A diagnosis of HSP was made based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The patient’s renal function and purpura improved with a 5-day course of steroid pulse therapy. This case of HSP in a newly diagnosed HIV patient is unusual for the presence of crescentic glomerulopathy.

  • Simon Kashfi, Mohamed Farhan Nasser, Aron Soleiman, Sapna Sharma, Venkata Sandeep Koripalli, Shorabh Sharma
    Views: 529
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    Clot in transit (CIT) is a rare condition in which a venous thromboembolism becomes lodged in the right heart. It is seen in up to 18% of patients with massive pulmonary embolism, and if left untreated, mortality rates are between 80% and 100%. The identification and management of CIT are crucial. However, there are no current guidelines for the treatment of CIT. We present the case of a 44-year-old woman who was found to have CIT that was ultimately treated with medical management.

  • Owais Rahman, Junaid Rasul, Waqas Mahmood, Niamh Logan, Aidan O'Brien
    Views: 460
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    Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients aged 19 years or below according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The condition is characterised by fever, inflammation and organ dysfunction. PIMS mimics Kawasaki disease or toxic shock syndrome. As SARS-CoV-2 infection is a global pandemic, clinicians need to be aware of the conditions associated with it.
    We present the case of 18-year-old woman who was admitted with multi-organ failure requiring admission to the intensive care unit. The differential diagnosis included toxic shock syndrome, Kawasaki disease and PIMS. The overall picture fit the criteria for PIMS but the patient had a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, which presented additional diagnostic difficulties. As the PCR test was negative, IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured to detect past infection and tested positive. The patient was diagnosed with PIMS as she met the WHO criteria after other differential diagnoses were excluded. She was successfully treated with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).

  • Muhammad Atif Masood Noori, Hardik Fichadiya, Hasham Saeed, Qirat Jawed, Shruti Jesani, Asnia Latif, Meherwan Joshi
    Views: 1289
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    The left ventricular outflow tract is a region of the left ventricle that lies between the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and the ventricular septum. Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) has classically been observed in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) where it occurs secondary to asymmetric septal hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve. However, there are some instances that lead to hypercontractility of the myocardium, and with a combination of other physiological conditions, result in SAM of a mitral valve leaflet, leading to LVOTO in the absence of phenotype.<br/>
    We present such a case of an acute inferolateral wall myocardial infarction that was complicated by cardiogenic shock, requiring an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and inotropic support which paradoxically provoked LVOTO. A reduction in IABP counterpulsation from 1:1 to 1:3 and the addition of intravenous fluids and a beta blocker resulted in significant improvement in blood pressure with rapid tapering of pressors.
    Inotropes and IABP, although helpful in cardiogenic shock, have the potential to induce or worsen the LVOTO, which can lead to a vicious cycle of worsening hypotension and increasing adrenergic drive that further deteriorates myocardial viability. Timely diagnosis with an echocardiogram and the withdrawal of inotropic and IABP support has the potential to improve haemodynamics and, thereby, outcome.