The European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine is an official journal of the European Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM). The journal wants to promote the practice of internal medicine in Europe. Its aim is to provide a forum to internal medicine doctors.
EJCRIM is peer-reviewed with single-blind review and freely accessible to all.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease which can be primary or secondary to other autoimmune conditions and is defined by the occurrence of arterial or venous thrombosis, or pregnancy morbidity associated with persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLA). The kidney may be affected by thrombosis at any level of its vasculature. When small vessels are involved, this results in thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), which can manifest as either acute vaso-occlusive or chronic vascular lesions in glomeruli, arterioles and interlobular arteries. We report the case of 26-year-old man, with a previous medical history suggestive of APS, who was found to have a small elevation in serum creatinine. A kidney biopsy was performed and revealed features of chronic TMA. Anticoagulation was begun and kidney function remained stable. However, one year later, upon suspension of anticoagulation, the patient developed acute kidney injury and a second kidney biopsy showed acute TMA. This case describes different manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) and highlights the importance of anticoagulation for thrombosis prevention.