• João Afonso Rodrigues, Pedro Brogueira, Sara Rodrigues; Margarida Cardoso; Tiago Pack

    Introduction: Haemoptysis is a common symptom which can sometimes mimic gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Case description: We describe the case of a 31-year-old man who presented to the emergency department after an episode of sudden nausea and presumed massive haematemesis. The situation was interpreted as gastrointestinal bleeding but clinical evolution and greater attention to the anamnesis resulted in a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and the provision of appropriate care.

    Discussion: This report emphasizes the difficulty of differentiating between haemoptysis and haematemesis and the importance of a careful anamnesis and attention to all clinical circumstances for an accurate diagnosis.

  • Sapir Anani, Gad Segal

    Introduction: The combination of acute/sub-acute neurological and metabolic derangements should always raise the suspicion of toxicity, either endogenous or exogenous. The adverse effects of psychiatric medications are especially difficult to determine since the psychiatric background of patients is often inaccessible.

    Clinical Presentation: A 66-year-old man presented to the emergency department with dysarthria and uncontrolled tremor, rapidly deteriorating into a complex of severe neurological and metabolic derangements. Only after repeated attempts to take a thorough history was lithium toxicity identified.

    Conclusion: Thorough, comprehensive history taking, including chronic medications and their substitutes, is essential and lifesaving when potentially lethal medications are involved.

  • Izzat Khanjar, Ibrahim Abdulmomen, Yousef Yahia, Abdul-Wahab Al-Allaf

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological entity with many causes. The primary abnormality is cerebral vasogenic oedema. Here we describe the management of five patients with PRES syndrome who presented to our hospital.

  • Steeve Neves Rosado, Vera Silveira, Ana Isabel Reis, André Gordinho, Carla Noronha

    Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease, most commonly presenting with sicca symptoms—xerostomia and xerophthalmia. Up to one-half of affected individuals also develop extra-glandular involvement. Early diagnosis is important to prevent further complications. This paper describes an atypical case of SS in a 21-year-old woman who presented first with neuropsychiatric symptoms and fever. She was diagnosed and treated for a presumed psychotic episode. However, because she remained febrile, a thorough investigation resulted in the challenging diagnosis of SS.

  • Ricardo Jorge Gonçalves Fernandes, Márcia Leite, Joana Cochicho, Rafaela Veríssimo, Agripino Oliveira

    Chylous ascites is rare and results in accumulation of lymph in the abdominal cavity, due to several mechanisms. The ascitic liquid is milky because of the high concentration of triglycerides (>200 mg/dl). The higher incidence compared to the past is explained by increased survival of patients with cancer and more aggressive surgery. We describe the case of an 87-year-old man admitted to the geriatric ward due to general oedema, chylous ascites and loss of weight, explained by mantle cell lymphoma.

  • Matteo Traversa, Andrea Collini, Paola Villois, Fabrizio Elia, Andrea Verhovez, Franco Aprà

    Background: Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is one of the most popular drugs for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Most of its side effects are harmless and predictable, but some studies report a few life-threatening reactions to this drug, one of the most dangerous being acute pulmonary oedema.
    Case Report: A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department with acute respiratory failure due to pulmonary oedema. Her past medical history included long-lasting hypertension with permanent atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis. Her blood pressure control had been suboptimal, so her cardiologist had changed amlodipine to combination therapy with ramipril and HCTZ. However, 20 min after taking the new drug, the patient experienced fever, vomiting and diarrhoea immediately followed by acute onset of dyspnoea.
    Conclusion: Since HCTZ is one of the most popular drugs for hypertension treatment and millions of patients take it every day, it is important to keep in mind both the common adverse reactions as well as the dangerous, although rare, ones.

  • Imen Gargouri, Benzarti Wafa Hergli, Sana Aissa, Samia Kanoun-Belajouza, Abdelaziz Hayouni, Abdelhamid Garrouche, Ahmed Abdelghani, Mohamed Benzarti

    Gingival metastasis of lung cancer is uncommon. We report the case of an 82-year-old male smoker admitted to the pulmonology department with right pleural effusion. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed an invasive right hilar tumour, adherent to the superior vena cava, pulmonary artery, main right bronchus, mediastinal pleura and pericardium with lymphangitic carcinomatosis of the right lung. Pleural biopsy revealed pleural metastasis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, its primary lung origin being confirmed by immunohistochemistry. One month later, the patient developed an ulcerated polypoid gingival mass. Biopsy of this lesion showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma compatible with metastasis from the lung adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent irradiation of the gingival mass at a dose of 30 Gray, but his condition worsened rapidly and he was not fit for chemotherapy. He received palliative treatment and died 2 months after diagnosis of his metastatic lung cancer.

  • Maria Margherita Rando, Giuseppe De Matteis, Marco Gessi, Matteo Bartoli, Marco Galli, Giovanni Gambassi

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Pulmonary TB is the most common form of presentation, but extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Rarely, patients with EPTB develop a form of ankle or foot arthritis. The diagnosis of TB arthritis is often overlooked because of the insidious onset and the non-specific clinical symptoms. Prognosis is generally poor; early diagnosis and delivery of the most appropriate treatment is critical to avoid functional disability.

  • Diego Martínez, Maria Teresa Belmonte, Piotr Kosny, Maria Rosario Gómez, Diego Hellín

    We describe the incidental finding of an aneurysm of the left branch of the portal vein in a patient without liver pathology. The diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound.


  • Toni El Murr, Ricardo El Nouwar

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diffuse hepatic involvement is uncommon and therefore presentation as progressive hepatitis or acute fulminant hepatic failure is rare. Acute onset of signs and symptoms can mimic a variety of infectious and inflammatory disorders, thus delaying the diagnosis. A high index of suspicion and liver biopsy early in the course of liver dysfunction may establish the diagnosis and allow rapid initiation of chemotherapy to prevent a fatal outcome. In this report, we describe a rare case of fulminant primary hepatic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 55-year-old woman who died 2 weeks after admission, before the initiation of chemotherapy.

  • Laith Alamlih, Mohamed Alkahlout, Abdulrahim Siam, Syed Alam, Abdul-Wahab Al-Allaf

    We described the case of a 23-year-old Nepalese man with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and abnormal x-ray findings, found to be due to a very rare bone disease: Camurati Engelmann disease or progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (PDD). This is the first case reported in the Gulf area, although approximately 300 cases have been described worldwide. These patients usually present with limb pain and easy fatigability. Our patient first presented with bilateral, symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis involving the knees, ankles and wrists but sparing the hands and feet. The diagnosis of PDD in our case was based on the classic radiological findings and a bone scan.

  • Alfredo Vieira, Bárbara Batista, Tiago Tribolet de Abreu

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a condition characterized by transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, with a possible direct causal role of catecholamine in its pathophysiology. We present a case of a woman with shock and adrenal insufficiency in whom Takotsubo cardiomyopathy developed after treatment with norepinephrine. This case confirms the direct causal role of catecholamine in the pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. An 82-year-old woman presented with asthenia, anorexia, nausea and abdominal pain. The patient had been on chronic corticosteroid therapy until 3 months before, when she underwent abdominal surgery and corticosteroids were stopped. She now presented with acute kidney injury, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia and shock. A norepinephrine continuous infusion was administered to maintain a mean arterial pressure over 65 mmHg. An echocardiogram showed severe hypokinesis in the apical segments and hyperdynamic basal segments, with an ejection fraction of 25%. Plasma cortisol level was 4.5 µg/dL (reference range 5-25). Corticosteroid therapy was begun and norepinephrine was tapered and stopped. A new echocardiogram showed normalization of cardiac wall motion and an ejection fraction of 70%. This case highlights the importance of the correction of the cause of shock, as well as the risks associated with the use of norepinephrine if hypotension is severe or if it persists despite fluid administration, as usually recommended. It also confirms the direct causal role of catecholamine in the pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of stress-induced cardiomyopathy secondary to norepinephrine by continuous infusion for shock.

  • Alberto Benavente Fernández, Sara Pérez Moyano; Husein Husein-ElAhmed; Ana María Alfaro Juárez

    Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease is rare, mediated by autoimmune melanocyte inflammation and facilitated by genetic predisposition[1-3]. The main clinical features include uveitis, meningitis, tinnitus and sensorineural deafness, and skin and hair depigmentation. It usually develops in four consecutive stages: prodromal, acute uveitic, convalescent, and chronic or recurrent[4]. In view of the first two stages, the differential diagnosis takes into account uveo-meningeal syndromes. Treatment is based on high dose corticosteroids. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl admitted to hospital with fever, progressive uveo-meningeal symptoms, and sensorineural hearing loss. After work-up, the final diagnosis of Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease was made.

  • Omar Suhail Alsaed, Yousef M Yahia, Hani Ali Malallah Abdulaziz, Abdul-Wahab Al-Allaf

    We report the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who presented with severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and subjective fever and was found to have acute kidney injury, haematuria, leukocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. An abdominal CT scan showed lobar nephronia of the left kidney complicated by infarction. Subsequent MRI also revealed splenic infarction. Despite IV antibiotics and US-guided perinephric collection drainage, the condition of the patient continued to deteriorate so he underwent total nephrectomy. Serial follow-up CT scans showed multi-level vascular occlusions, bowel ischaemia and splenic infarction. Large-vessel vasculitis was suspected, and pulse steroid therapy was planned. However, the histopathology report of the resected kidney revealed mucor-like fungal infection suggestive of invasive mucormycosis as a cause for the widespread vasculitis. Although IV amphotericin B and caspofungin were started immediately, the patient died a few days later. We report this case to raise awareness that invasive fungal infection can cause large-vessel vasculitis. Immunosuppression for patients from endemic areas should only be considered after an infectious aetiology for vasculitis has been excluded.

  • Mengfei Xiong, Wai Lun Moy

    Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by visual loss, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and hypoaesthesia of the forehead[1]. OAS may result from a variety of inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and vascular conditions that cause damage to the superior orbital fissure (with resultant oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI) and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) palsies) and to the optic canal leading to optic nerve (II) dysfunction. This case report describes the clinical development of OAS in a patient with bacterial sphenoid sinusitis.

  • Marwene Grira, Michel Boulvain, Jean-Paul Janssens

    A 20-year-old asylum seeker presented with vomiting and left thigh pain, with a biological inflammatory syndrome. Pregnancy was diagnosed. Investigations revealed a pseudo-cystic, 20-cm-long retroperitoneal abscess, biopsy of which confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Evolution after cyst drainage and under conventional anti-tuberculosis treatment was favourable. An abdominal location of tuberculosis is rare and its diagnosis is difficult especially in countries with a low incidence of the disease. Unexplained abdominal manifestations and/or persistent biological inflammatory syndrome, especially in high-risk groups, should raise the suspicion of tuberculosis.

  • Maria João Raposo Linhares Serpa, Susana Franco, Diana Repolho, Francisco Branco, João Gramaça, José Ferreira Júnior

    Some 2–5% of germ cell tumours are of extragonadal origin, with a retroperitoneal location being very rare. The majority of retroperitoneal germ cell tumours have metastasized from a testicular tumour. These tumours are diagnosed incidentally or symptomatically and nearly all present with high alpha-fetoprotein and lactate dehydrogenase levels.
    We describe the unusual case of a 31-year-old man with a yolk-sac, retroperitoneal germ cell tumour, with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein and lactate dehydrogenase levels, which has not previously been described. A testicular tumour was excluded by physical examination and additional tests. Our diagnosis was based on a high level of suspicion and histopathological results. As far as we know, this is the first case described with these characteristics.

  • Carmen Tavares Pais, Rita Carneiro Silva, Teresa Gomes, Sónia Carvalho

    Tracheobronchomalacia is defined as loss of the structural integrity of airway wall cartilaginous structures with hyperdynamic airway collapse during respiration. It is a common finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not always symptomatic, especially if airway narrowing is mild. Symptoms and signs develop as the severity of airway narrowing progresses. When a patient is symptomatic, a prompt study with computerized tomography and flexible bronchoscopy is mandatory for future management. We present a case of tracheobronchomalacia in a patient with COPD whose diagnosis and treatment were challenging.

  • Omar Alsaed, Nawal Hadwan, Izzat Khanjar, Abdul-Wahab Al-Allaf

    The most common cause of bilateral symmetrical polyarthritis in the small joints is rheumatoid arthritis. However, if seronegative arthritis is involved, it could be the case that other underlying causes need to be diagnosed. This is particularly important for those coming from or living in developing countries where infectious causes should always be considered. The case of a young Nepali woman is presented in this article. She was referred as a case of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis for DMARDs therapy but this was not the case due to her origin from Nepal and seronegativity for RF, Anti-ccp, and ANA as well as faint macular skin lesions over her face and upper extremities, which the patients are not aware of. Consequently, skin biopsy was carried out which subsequently confirmed that the infectious cause of her polyarthritis was leprosy.

  • Anne Manjalee Liyanage, Tahir Shafiq, Vitthal Ramchandra Wadekar, Naveed Sultan, Fares Abdulla

    May–Thurner syndrome (MTS) usually presents as acute or chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients. A 49-year-old woman presented with left lower limb DVT, which was followed by a diagnosis of MTS on a background of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hypothyroidism. MTS is more common among women in the second to fourth decades of life. An endovascular approach is the preferred first-line treatment for MTS.

  • Sanne van Haren Noman, Hannah Visser, Alex Muller, Gijs Limonard

    Objectives: To demonstrate difficulties in diagnosing and treating Addison’s disease caused by tuberculosis.
    Materials and methods: We present a clinical case and review of the literature.
    Results: A 62-year-old man presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, weight loss and enlarged adrenal glands. After 2 months of diagnostic tests, a working diagnosis of Addison’s disease due to extrapulmonary tuberculosis was made. Treatment was challenging due to interaction between rifampicin and steroids.
    Conclusion: Our case illustrates that in non-endemic countries, extrapulmonary tuberculosis still needs to be considered as a possible cause of Addison’s disease.

  • Ana Rafaela Araújo, Magda Sousa, Joel Pinto, Susana Cavadas, Luís Rodrigues

    Introduction: Isolated right pulmonary artery agenesis in an adult patient is an extremely rare condition that requires a high level of suspicion to make the diagnosis.
    Case Description: A 32-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a 4-month history of recurrent respiratory infections. Chest radiography and computerized tomography (CT) revealed alveolar opacities on the medium and inferior right lobes. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy with bronchial aspirate was negative on both cytological and microbiological analysis. Due to the persistent of the imaging findings after a full course of a wide-spectrum antibiotic, an angio-CT was performed, revealing a complete stop at the level of the right pulmonary artery. Angiography confirmed the diagnosis of right pulmonary artery agenesis.
    Discussion: Currently, the patient has no exertional dyspnoea, screening for pulmonary hypertension has so far been negative and no further respiratory infections have occurred. It is important to call attention to a major congenital malformation that may remain asymptomatic until adulthood.

  • Meenal Sharma, Chris Anthony, Christopher Hayward, Andrew Jabbour, Anne M Keogh, Peter Macdonald, Jacob Sevastos

    Purpose: Solid organ re-transplantation in the context of allograft failure is a challenging clinical and ethical problem. Ideally, solid organ re-transplantation after initial allograft failure should be performed in all recipients, but this is often not clinically or logistically feasible.
    Methods: This report details what we believe is the first combined heart–kidney transplant in a recipient of a previous sequential heart and kidney transplant. Results: Eight years after a combined heart and kidney transplant after initially receiving a sequential heart and kidney transplant, a 31-year-old man is doing extremely well, with no rejection episodes or significant complications after transplantation.
    Summary: This case confirms that combined heart and kidney transplantation is a viable option for tackling the complex issue of graft failure in recipients of previous cardiac and renal grafts.

  • Anat Bel-ange, Sigal Tal, Micha Rapoport

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disorder that most commonly affects the lungs. Bone involvement is rare, and spinal involvement is even more rare. The presence of focal lesions of the vertebrae is highly suspicious of advanced malignancy. However, malignant metastatic spread to the spine involves the vertebral cortex rather than the bone marrow itself, a distinction that is often missed and therefore misleading. We describe here a middle-aged woman with multiple focal oedematous lesions of the bone marrow suspected of being advanced malignancy but finally diagnosed as a rare case of spinal sarcoidosis.