Loculated Empyema and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature
  • Sarah Ayad
    Internal Medicine, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School/Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA
  • Kirolos Gergis
    Internal Medicine, McLaren Health Care, Flint, Michigan, USA
  • Sherif Elkattawy
    Internal Medicine, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School/Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA
  • Noreen Mirza
    St. George’s University, Grenada, West Indies
  • Basel Abdelazeem
    Internal Medicine, McLaren Health Care, Flint, Michigan, USA
  • Latika Patel
    Internal Medicine, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School/Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA
  • Carlos Remolina
    Department of Pulmonology, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA

Keywords

Empyema, loculated pleural effusion, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical manifestations are diverse and can vary from mild respiratory symptoms to severe hypoxic respiratory failure. In severe cases, infection can cause gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, neurological and haematological complications and result in multi-organ failure. There are very few reports of parapneumonic effusion in patients with COVID-19. We describe two patients with COVID-19 who had loculated empyema and discuss the clinical course and therapeutic options.

VIEW THE ENTIRE ARTICLE

References

  • Zhu H, Wei L, Niu P. The novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. Glob Health Res Policy 2020;5(2):6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-020-00135-6
  • World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. 2021. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/ (accessed 7 Jun 2021).
  • Placik DA, Taylor WL, Wnuk NM. Bronchopleural fistula development in the setting of novel therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Radiol Case Rep 2020;15(11):2378–2381. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.09.026
  • Weese WC, Shindler ER, Smith IM, Rabinovich S. Empyema of the thorax then and now. A study of 122 cases over four decades. Arch Intern Med 1973;131(4):516–520. Available from: http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archinte.1973.00320100044004
  • Farjah F, Symons RG, Krishnadasan B, Wood DE, Flum DR. Management of pleural space infections: a population-based analysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133(2):346–351. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17258562
  • Sahn SA. Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45(11):1480–1486. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17990232
  • Marks DJB, Fisk MD, Koo CY, Pavlou M, Peck L, Lee SF, et al. Thoracic empyema: a 12-year study from a UK tertiary cardiothoracic referral centre. PLoS One 2012;7(1):e30074.
  • Tsang KY, Leung WS, Chan VL, Lin AWL, Chu CM. Complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema thoracis: microbiology and predictors of adverse outcomes. Hong Kong Med J 2007;13(3):178–186.
  • Chong WH, Saha BK, Conuel E, Chopra A. The incidence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 pneumonia: state-of-the-art review. Heart Lung 2021;50(4):481–490. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2021.02.015
  • Zhang L, Kong X, Li X, Zhu J, Liu S, Li W, et al. CT imaging features of 34 patients infected with COVID-19. Clin Imaging 2020;68(29):226–231. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.05.016
  • Guan CS, Wei LG, Xie RM, Lv ZB, Yan S, Zhang ZX, et al. CT findings of COVID-19 in follow-up: comparison between progression and recovery. Diagn Interv Radiol 2020;26(4):301–307.
  • Tessitore A, Patella M, Giuliani M, Theologou T, Freguia S, Minerva EM, et al. Surgical treatment of pleural empyema in Coronavirus disease 19 patients: the Southern Switzerland experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021;32(3):367–370.
  • Views: 860
    HTML downloads: 304
    PDF downloads: 488


    Published: 2021-07-15
    Issue: 2021: Vol 8 No 7 (view)


    How to cite:
    1.
    Ayad S, Gergis K, Elkattawy S, Mirza N, Abdelazeem B, Patel L, Remolina C. Loculated Empyema and SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature. EJCRIM 2021;8 doi:10.12890/2021_002706.

    Most read articles by the same author(s)

    << < 1 2