2024: Vol 11 No 3

2024: Vol 11 No 3
  • Thong Dang-Vu, Dung Lam-Quoc, Ngoc Duong-Minh, Ha Vu, Lam Nguyen-Ho, Phu Truong-Thien, Khoa Nguyen-Dang
    Views: 383 PDF: 207 HTML: 35

    Infection caused by Candida auris has rapidly become a global health threat. C. auris created a significant healthcare burden due to various complicating factors, including misidentification by commercial identification methods, potent antifungal resistance, high mortality rates and the possibility of nosocomial outbreaks through direct contact. In Vietnam, there are currently no clinical reports on C. auris infections. Here, we present four clinical cases of C. auris infections in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine of Cho Ray Hospital in southern Vietnam. Through this report, we aim to highlight the attention to the emergence of C. auris in Vietnam. Further research on C. auris infections is warranted, focusing on newly observed clinical characteristics present in all cases in this report, including hypoalbuminaemia and corticosteroid usage. Moreover, one case of resistance to amphotericin B has been identified, possibly due to prior exposure to this antifungal agent.

  • Mohsin Haseeb, Abdullah Shafiq, Muhammad A. Sheikh, Muhammad F. Khan
    Views: 248 HTML: 16 PDF: 143

    Background: Epipericardial fat necrosis (EFN) is a rare and self-limiting cause of acute chest pain. We describe a case of EFN in a patient with a recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
    Case Presentation: A 55-year-old male presented with a sudden onset of left-sided pleuritic chest pain for the past two days. The patient was diaphoretic, tachypneic, and tachycardic. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out. A computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiogram revealed an ovoid encapsulated fatty mass surrounded by dense appearing tissue. Patient symptoms improved remarkably with a short course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Discussion: EFN typically presents with a sudden onset of excruciating chest pain. Misdiagnosis, under-diagnosis, and mismanagement are unavoidable. EFN is incidentally diagnosed on CT scan. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects visceral adipose tissue and appears to increase the risk of EFN by promoting inflammatory cytokine production and death of adipocytes.
    Conclusion: EFN is a rare cause of acute chest pain. SARS-CoV-2 is likely to induce EFN. This rare clinical entity should be considered in the differential of acute chest pain especially in patients with active or recent COVID-19.

  • Roxane Pasquer, Yannick Dieudonné, Pauline Decours, Olivier Hinschberger, Alina Nicolae, Martin Martinot
    Views: 187 HTML: 8 PDF: 131

    Castleman’s disease (CD) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are rare diseases that can affect the general population, especially those with HIV. Owing to their rarity, the association between CD and TTP remains insufficiently understood. In this study, we present a case of a 53-year-old patient with controlled HIV infection who presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, severe anaemia, and thrombocytopenia. After a series of tests, the diagnosis was concurrent human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-related multicentric CD (MCD) and TTP. Only four male patients were previously reported having this association, with HHV8 present in four and HIV in three patients, suggesting that coinfection with HHV8 and HIV is a pivotal factor in MCD with TTP occurrence.

  • Yashitha Chirumamilla, Ajit Brar, Farouk Belal, Philip McDonald
    Views: 154 HTML: 6 PDF: 140

    A 56-year-old African American female was under evaluation for coronary artery disease by a cardiologist due to her complaints of intermittent chest pain. She underwent an outpatient echocardiogram and was found to have an ejection fraction of 20–25% with global left ventricular hypokinesis. Due to this finding along with her ongoing chest pain, she was referred to the emergency department for further evaluation. Her electrocardiogram showed changes suggestive of ischaemia and her cardiac troponins were mildly elevated, so she underwent an urgent cardiac catheterisation. The angiography confirmed the reduced ejection fraction and global left ventricular hypokinesis, but also demonstrated a large coronary cameral fistula (CCF) extending from the first septal branch into the left ventricle. She was then diagnosed with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction secondary to the CCF. In this report, we illustrate a frequently encountered clinical scenario in which a patient presented with chest pain and EKG findings indicative of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The patient also had several risk factors for coronary artery disease, however further investigation revealed an alternative diagnosis.

  • Harshwardhan Khandait, Sherif Elkattawy, Jesus E. Romero, Ana L. Romero, Rachel Abboud, Yezin Shamoon, Omar Elkattawy, Nour Elhouda Elassa, Gamal Musleh, Fayez Shamoon, Meherwan Joshi
    Views: 229 HTML: 18 PDF: 99

    Acute myocardial infarction can result in various mechanical complications, although they have become rare with the advent of reperfusion therapies. Among these complications, ventricular septal rupture (VSR) and left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) are infrequent but life-threatening conditions associated with high morbidity and mortality. We present a rare case of a 67-year-old male with acute myocardial infarction who developed concomitant apical LVA and ventricular septal rupture.

  • Ekrem Yetiskul, Aqsa Nisar, Salman Khan, Faris Qaqish, Danyal Khan, Alexander Bershadskiy
    Views: 273 HTML: 10 PDF: 140

    Anagrelide is a medication primarily used to manage thrombocytosis, an abnormal increase in platelet levels in the blood. It is often prescribed for patients with myeloproliferative disorders, such as essential thrombocythaemia (ET). Given the heightened susceptibility to thromboembolism associated with this condition, the primary emphasis in treatment revolves around reducing the risk of thrombotic events through the administration of cytotoxic agents. While anagrelide is generally effective in reducing platelet counts, it comes with potential side effects, including an increased risk of certain thrombotic events. Anagrelide acts by inhibiting megakaryocyte maturation and platelet release, thereby reducing platelet production. However, this platelet-lowering effect may be accompanied by an increase in platelet activation and reactivity, which could contribute to a prothrombotic state. We present a case of a 60-year-old female with a history of ET, managed with anagrelide and hydroxyurea therapy, who experienced an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

  • Mohammad N. Kloub, Ahmad Haddad, Mohammad Abushanab, Qusai Al-maharmeh, Muhammad Hussain, Abdullah Al Qazakzeh, Atheer Anwar
    Views: 218 PDF: 148 HTML: 14

    Stercoral colitis is a rare but serious condition characterized by inflammation of the colonic mucosa due to impacted and hardened faecal material. The word “stercoral” means “related to faeces”. This condition usually develops due to the accumulation of hard stool masses in the colon, which cause localized inflammation and irritation. These faecalomas can exert persistent pressure on the colonic wall, causing damage and inflammation. Stercoral colitis presenting symptoms that mimic acute mesenteric ischemia is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to the overlap in clinical manifestations. Changes in bowel habits, bloating, and excruciating abdominal pain are potential manifestations of both illnesses, making it difficult to distinguish between them using clinical presentation. Diagnostic imaging, such as computed tomography scans, significantly discriminates between stercoral colitis and acute mesenteric ischemia.
    In cases where stercoral colitis mimics acute mesenteric ischemia, a thorough evaluation is essential to rule out vascular compromise. Timely and accurate diagnosis is crucial, as the management strategies for these two conditions differ significantly. Stercoral colitis often requires bowel evacuation and addressing the underlying faecal impaction. Acute mesenteric ischemia demands prompt vascular intervention to restore blood flow and prevent severe complications like bowel infarction. Given the potential overlap in symptoms and the critical importance of distinguishing between stercoral colitis and acute mesenteric ischemia, a multidisciplinary approach involving radiological imaging, clinical expertise, and timely intervention is essential for optimal patient care. This case highlights the importance of considering stercoral colitis when evaluating a patient with an acute abdomen, especially elderly patients with history of constipation.

  • Salman Khan, Ekrem Yetiskul, Malik Waleed Zeb Khan, Gabriel Chavez Reyna, Amanda Matra, George Khattar, Marcel A. Odaimi
    Views: 385 PDF: 244 HTML: 9

    Introduction: During treatment for malignant lymphoma, cytopenia can develop for several reasons. This can range from mild cytopenias leading to infection and bleeding to full-blown drug-induced aplastic anaemia. While aplastic anaemia affects individuals of all genders and ages, here, we describe aplastic anaemia after chemotherapy exposure to bendamustine in a 65-year-old female with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
    Case description: A 65-year-old woman with recurrent indolent marginal zone lymphoma and post-chemotherapy with bendamustine and rituximab, presented with a neutropenic fever and was admitted with a leading diagnosis of sepsis. In the previous two weeks, the patient required regular transfusions of packed red blood cells and platelets and maintained a daily ZARXIO® regimen. Laboratory results revealed pancytopenia, and broad-spectrum antibiotics (cefepime/vancomycin) were given. The patient was subsequently admitted to the hospital under the care of the haematology/oncology team and was ultimately diagnosed with aplastic anaemia, likely as a consequence of bendamustine chemoimmunotherapy. She elicited a positive response to the triple immunosuppressive therapy (IST) regimen (two immunotherapeutic agents plus one anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), after which her cell counts returned to normal.
    Conclusions: This case underscores the importance of recognising haematologic complications linked to bendamustine and advocates for further research to increase the understanding among healthcare professionals of drug-induced aplastic anaemia. Bendamustine can cause severe autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and aplastic anaemia and may require multiple transfusions and a multidrug regimen for treatment. The use of ATG as a therapeutic intervention is appropriate because it has been effective in treating aplastic anaemia.

  • Totawatte Don Srilak Weerawardane, Nils Bürgisser , Amandine Berner , Matteo Coen
    Views: 230 HTML: 12 PDF: 159

    Background: Until now, only a few cases of Valsalva-induced barotraumas (pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema) have been described, and none of them among COVID-19 patients.
    Case description: A man in his 50s was admitted for SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Initial evolution was favourable with non-invasive ventilatory support, high-flow oxygen nasal cannula and the best supportive drugs available at the time. During the Valsalva manoeuvre while defecating, the patient reported sudden chest pain and showed a new acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to a pneumothorax. It led to multiple complications (pulmonary embolism, haemoptysis, and cardiac arrest), and despite the best supportive care, led to the patient's death.
    Discussion: The Valsalva manoeuvre can be an overlooked cause of pneumothorax in patients with COVID-19. Predisposition to barotrauma in COVID-19 patients could be explained by several factors, including the extensive use of non-invasive and invasive ventilation during the pandemic, and the histological changes observed in the lungs of those infected with COVID-19.
    Conclusion: We report the first description of a Valsalva-induced barotrauma in a COVID-19 infection. We emphasise the importance of treating constipation particularly in severe COVID-19 cases, to prevent complications such as barotrauma.

  • Isabel Cruz, Rafaela Lopes, Bruno Bragança, Inês Campos, Inês Oliveira, Inês Gonçalves, Rui P. Santos, Aurora Andrade
    Views: 254 HTML: 13 PDF: 193

    Introduction: Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is a rare abnormality of pulmonary vasculature. It can be idiopathic or secondary to various pathologies, frequently with multiple factors leading to its formation. We report the case of a man with concomitant sarcoidosis and PAA.
    Case description: A 75-year-old male with a diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis was referred to the Cardiology department due to heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mildly reduced LVEF, aortic root and pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation, and no signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed, revealing mild left ventricular dilation, LVEF of 40%, main PA dilation (43 mm) and a pattern of late gadolinium enhancement suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis. At follow-up, a thoracic computed tomography (CT) angiography scan revealed ascending aorta ectasia and giant main PA aneurysm (60 mm). A right heart catheterisation was performed, and a mean PA pressure of 34 mmHg was obtained. Given the clinical context, the patient was considered to have PH due to lung disease and left heart disease, and PAA was possible due to vascular granulomatous involvement by sarcoidosis.
    Conclusion: PAA is a rare finding and mostly occurs in the setting of PH. Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that mostly affects the lungs, but the sarcoid involvement of great vessels has been described. In this clinical case, the probable cause for the PA fragility leading to aneurysm formation remains sarcoid vascular infiltration, regarding the discrepancy between the PA dimensions and mildly elevated PA pressure.

  • Nagihan Orhun, Utku Ekin, Jessimar Sanchez, Moh'd Hazem Azzam, Rajapriya Manickam
    Views: 149 HTML: 8 PDF: 113

    Spontaneous bleeding into the upper airways is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of chronic anticoagulation. There are scarce cases in the literature demonstrating upper airway haematomas secondary to warfarin use, which is the predominant anticoagulant used by clinicians despite having a complex pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. We report a compelling case featuring warfarin-induced sublingual haematoma, managed conservatively through the reversal of anticoagulation using fresh frozen plasma complemented by vigilant monitoring within the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

  • Yuta Yoshino, Ken Tsuboi
    Views: 157 HTML: 9 PDF: 131

    Introduction: Large-scale clinical studies for COVID-19 vaccines have shown the infection-preventing effect and short-term adverse effects. Some rare illnesses such as eosinophilia can develop following COVID-19 vaccinations.
    Case description: We report a case of 65-year-old man with unexplained abdominal pain that developed 2 weeks after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. The patient had received a second dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and revealed eosinophilia at the first visit to our hospital. Eosinophil infiltration was observed in the lamina propria of the duodenum by a step biopsy. Montelukast 10 mg was administered as the initial treatment of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), and the abdominal pain was improved.
    Discussion: The strong influence of COVID-19 vaccination on the development of EGE remains unproven. Reports of eosinophilia following COVID-19 vaccination have discussed that COVID-19 mRNA vaccination triggered an eosinophilic response.
    Conclusion: This case presented EGE that developed following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, which would be a rare adverse event.

  • Bianca Maria Wahlen, Ayman El-Menyar, Ayman Elkholy
    Views: 162 HTML: 29 PDF: 160

    Background: In rare dermatology cases the differential diagnosis is challenging, e.g. when one nail is growing below another, the provisional diagnosis could be confusing. It may present as chronic paronychia, candidiasis, bacterial infections, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, subungual tumours, or cysts.
    Case description: We present a case of iatrogenic rupture of the nails of both big toes following a commonly known recommendation from physiotherapists in the initial stages of hallux valgus or chronic arthritis by using kinesio tape to prevent the big toe from fixation in the valgus position. The initial provisional diagnosis of retronychia was revised, and a final diagnosis of onychomadesis was made. The patient’s complaint was solved after around one year without any specific therapy.
    Conclusion: The differential diagnosis for onychomadesis needs a careful and detailed history that may prevent a patient from a frightening diagnosis and painful, long-lasting treatments.

  • Ana Órfão, Carolina Saca, Inês Alexandre, Ana Maria Oliveira, João Fernandes Serôdio, João Barreira, Teresa Mesquita
    Views: 247 HTML: 10 PDF: 177

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) may manifest with aggressive intracranial stenosis resistant to medical therapy, and patients may develop refractory neurologic deficits and cerebral infarcts, making GCA a life-threatening condition.
    We report the case of a 68-year-old woman recently diagnosed with GCA, medicated with prednisolone 60 mg daily. Two weeks later, the patient was admitted to our Stroke Unit after a sudden episode of global aphasia. Magnetic resonance angiography showed two recent ischaemic lesions, besides an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 17 mm/hour. A cerebral angiography revealed bilateral stenosis and dilation in the petrous, cavernous and supraclinoid segments of internal carotid arteries (ICA). The patient was started on intravenous methylprednisolone pulses (250 mg daily for five days). Computed tomography (CT) angiography and Doppler ultrasound showed severe vascular disease affecting multiple territories, without significant intracranial involvement. The hypothesis of GCA with extracranial vasculitic involvement was considered as the aetiology of ischaemic cerebral infarctions in multiple territories and, given the severity of the disease, it was decided to add tocilizumab. Despite this, the patient evolved with significant worsening neurological deficits and a CT scan confirmed the presence of new vascular events. Endovascular treatment (EVT) with balloon angioplasty was conducted on both ICAs, with improved calibre and downstream filling. After that, the patient presented sustained clinical improvement, without recurrence of any ischaemic events at the one-year follow-up.
    This clinical case stands out for the importance of EVT as an effective therapy in patients with medically refractory GCA with symptomatic intracranial stenosis, improving their prognosis.

  • Francisco Laranjeira, Bernardo Neves, Paulo Bernardo, Francisco do Rosário, Otília Fernandes, Evelina Mendonça, Ana Catarino
    Views: 151 PDF: 113 HTML: 18

    Immunoglobulin heavy chain amyloidosis (AH amyloidosis) is an extremely rare subtype of immunoglobulin-derived amyloidosis and there is limited literature on how to diagnose and manage this disorder. We describe a rare case of AH amyloidosis with amyloid goitre and the importance of mass spectrometry in the identification of the different types of amyloids. While additional studies are needed, several observations suggest important practical implications, including differences in clinical picture, prognosis, and pathologic diagnosis.

  • Masara Touza, Oluwatosin Emehinola , Ruhma Ali, Asma Jamil, Muhammad Hussain, Raed Atiyat, Richard Miller
    Views: 183 HTML: 6 PDF: 120

    Ischaemic gastropathy is an under-recognised phenomenon with a particularly poor prognosis, where early diagnosis is crucial for successful medical intervention and the prevention of life-threatening complications. We present a case involving a 42-year-old female with no history of vascular insufficiency who developed ischaemic gastropathy following a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, from septic shock secondary to Escherichia coli bacteraemia due to complicated acute appendicitis. This case underscores the importance of the physician’s awareness regarding this rare entity and the necessity to consider it in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain and haematemesis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve survival outcomes in this less-documented pathology, especially in the younger adult population.

  • Georgios Pilianidis, Georgia Papanastasiou, Pinelopi Tikoudi, Andreas Themistocleous, Georgios Farmakis, Konstantinos Dolianitis
    Views: 211 HTML: 15 PDF: 176

    Introduction: We present a case of anion gap euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EuDKA) in a patient with COVID-19 infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of severe illness, and hyperglycaemia is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19.
    Case Description: A 76-year-old male with diabetes mellitus treated with SGLT2 inhibitor tested positive for COVID-19 infection on day 3 after his admission. In the emergency room he had a high anion gap metabolic acidosis and a blood glucose of 248 mg/dl. His urine tested strongly positive for ketones. A diagnosis of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis was made and he was treated with intravenous insulin and normal saline; his antidiabetic medications were stopped. His metabolic acidosis gradually resolved, and he was discharged.
    Discussion: Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is a rare complication of COVID-19 infection. It is defined by the American Diabetes Association as the triad of anion gap metabolic acidosis with arterial pH <7.3, serum bicarbonate <18 mmol/l and ketonuria or ketonemia. It is a life-threatening complication which usually occurs in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients but may also occur in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. As described earlier, it is associated with hyperglycaemia but if blood glucose is low or near normal but <250 mg/dl it is then named euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis. Patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors are at increased risk of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis.
    Conclusions: COVID-19 infection precipitated euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in our patient. SGLT2 inhibitors must be stopped when this adverse reaction occurs. As their use increases, the risk of this adverse reaction is higher as well. Their prescription should be restricted to trained physicians who are able to educate their patients and treat them appropriately in situations that may arise.