Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption: a potentially life-threatening complication of atopic dermatitis
  • María Martín-Galache
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • Ana María Escalona-Gil
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • Luis Posado-Domínguez
    Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • Alejandro Jiménez-Domínguez
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • Alicia Arévalo-Cenzual
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • Francisco Javier López-Ávila
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
  • Eduardo Consuegra-Llapur
    Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

Keywords

Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption, eczema herpeticum, eczema vaccinatum, atopic dermatitis, herpes simplex virus

Abstract

Introduction: Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption (KVE), also known as eczema herpeticum or eczema vaccinatum, is an acute dermatosis that affects patients with chronic dermatopathies. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and is characterised by the presence of a vesicular exanthema on physical examination. The exanthema subsequently evolves into crusted lesions with typical circular ulcerations in ‘punched-out’ areas on the skin affected by the underlying dermatopathy.
Case description: We present the case of a 6-year-old patient who presented to the Paediatric Emergency department with skin lesions consistent with eczema herpeticum. The patient’s management was initially outpatient; however, due to the slow progression of the condition, hospitalisation and intravenous antiviral treatment were initiated.
Discussion: KVE affects patients with chronic dermatoses, especially atopic dermatitis. It is important to know the clinical presentation for an early suspicion. KVE is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. It can progress to secondary viraemia, which can be fatal in up to 10% of immunocompetent individuals and up to 50% of immunocompromised individuals. It is important to be aware of this condition and to start early treatment with antivirals, especially given the high prevalence of atopic dermatitis in our population. This condition is one of the most serious complications that can occur in these patients.

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    Published: 2024-03-28
    Issue: 2024: LATEST ONLINE (view)


    How to cite:
    1.
    Martín-Galache M, Escalona-Gil AM, Posado-Domínguez L, Jiménez-Domínguez A, Arévalo-Cenzual A, López-Ávila FJ, Consuegra-Llapur E. Kaposi’s varicelliform eruption: a potentially life-threatening complication of atopic dermatitis. EJCRIM 2024;11 doi:10.12890/2024_004392.

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