Navigating a complex case of Mycobacterium xenopi in a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
  • Muhammad Umer Riaz Gondal
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tower Health, Reading Hospital, West Reading, USA
  • Luke Rovenstine
    Department of Internal Medicine, Drexel University, West Reading, USA
  • Fawwad Ansari
    Department of Internal Medicine, Piedmont Athens Regional, Athens, USA
  • Zainab Kiyani
    Department of Internal Medicine, Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Devi Parvathy Jyothi Ramachandran Nair
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tower Health, Reading Hospital, West Reading, USA
  • Toqeer Khan
    Department of Internal Medicine, Lincoln Medical Center, New York, USA
  • Anthony Donato
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tower Health, Reading Hospital, West Reading, USA

Keywords

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Mycobacterium xenopi, bronchiectasis

Abstract

Introduction: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare disorder of venous malformations, with around 200 cases reported. We present a case of Mycobacterium xenopi infection in a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome.
Case Description: A 40-year-old female with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, asthma, and bronchiectasis came to the pulmonology clinic with shortness of breath and a cough. She was recently admitted for a bronchiectasis exacerbation but continued to have a worsening productive cough and fevers. The most recent CT scan of the chest showed interval stable right upper lobe fibrocavitary disease, demonstrating gradual progression over two years. She had occasional positive cultures for Mycobacterium Avium Complex and M. xenopi one year previously, assumed to be a colonizer and not treated. Most recent hospital cultures were negative for bacteria and an acid-fast bacilli smear. She was sent to the emergency department for bronchiectasis exacerbation and returned to the clinic six weeks later with two sputum cultures growing M. xenopi. It was decided to treat M. xenopi as this was likely the cause of her cavitary lung lesion and frequent infections. Azithromycin, rifampin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were initiated. Intravenous amikacin was added later on. She finally had a right partial lung resection done after one year at an outside hospital. She was on and off antibiotics for M. xenopi for approximately three years with negative repeat cultures for non-tuberculous mycobacteria.
Conclusion: Due to the high mortality of M. xenopi infections (which can be as high as 69%), treatment of at least twelve months is recommended. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of M. xenopi in a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome.

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    Published: 2024-05-02
    Issue: 2024: Vol 11 No 6 (view)


    How to cite:
    1.
    Gondal MUR, Rovenstine L, Ansari F, Kiyani Z, Jyothi Ramachandran Nair DP, Khan T, Donato A. Navigating a complex case of Mycobacterium xenopi in a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. EJCRIM 2024;11 doi:10.12890/2024_004530.

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