Gastrointestinal Diseases

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  • Ahlame Benhamdane, Tarik Adioui, Sanaa Berrag, Fouad Nejjari, Mohamed Allaoui, Mouna Tamzaourte
    Views: 16 HTML: 1 PDF: 11

    Introduction: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the liver (SCC) is a rare and challenging pathology. As an aggressive cancer, the prognosis is extremely poor with less than 12 months overall survival. In view of its low prevalence, we report the case of an elderly patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the liver.
    Case description: A 74-year-old female, with no pathological history, presented with acute right hypochondrium pain associated with shivering, asthenia and weight loss. We diagnosed primary hepatic squamous cell carcinoma by pathological analysis.
    Conclusion: Primary hepatic squamous cell carcinoma represents a rare malignant tumour with extremely poor prognosis. There is no established treatment protocol for this disease and a multidisciplinary approach is needed to choose the best therapeutic option.

  • Natalija Jevdokimova, Denis Jevdokimov, Jelena Ivanova , Sergejs Isajevs, Aiga Staka, Aldis Pukitis
    Views: 88 HTML: 12 PDF: 39

    Background: Primary hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) is an extremely rare tumour of vascular origin with an incidence of <0.1 cases per 100,000 people worldwide.
    Case description: A 29-year-old female with the history of epigastric pain and unintentional weight loss (3 kg over six months) was referred for upper endoscopy. The examination was without visual pathological findings, but a rapid urease test was positive. First-line treatment with clarithromycin-containing triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection was given. After completion of eradication therapy, diffuse abdominal pain developed. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed multiple liver nodules. Three consecutive core liver biopsies were performed and were inconclusive. A subsequent surgical liver nodule resection was performed. Histopathology of the specimen revealed grade 2 hepatocellular carcinoma; bone scintigraphy was negative for metastasis. A multidisciplinary team (MDT) recommended giving the patient sorafenib, which was poorly tolerated. The histology was reviewed using immunohistochemistry staining at the request of the oncologist, which showed expression of CD31 and CD34. Based on clinical, morphological and immunohistochemistry findings, a diagnosis of hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma was made. Based on the multidisciplinary team's findings, liver transplantation was indicated as the only curative treatment.
    Conclusion: Because of the rarity of this disease, combining clinical, radiological and histopathological methods as well as an MDT approach can help to reach the correct final diagnosis. As demonstrated in this clinical case, it is crucial to perform immunohistochemistry of a liver biopsy to confirm a HEHE diagnosis.

  • Yash R. Shah, Angad Tiwari, Dushyant Singh Dahiya, Veslav Stecevic, Zunirah Ahmed
    Views: 164 HTML: 6 PDF: 69

    Hepatitis A is a mild self-limiting infection of the liver with spontaneous resolution of symptoms in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware of some commonly encountered complications and extrahepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis A for timely diagnosis and treatment. Rhabdomyolysis, an exceedingly rare complication of hepatitis A, is scarcely documented. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with symptoms consistent with rhabdomyolysis and an evanescent rash secondary to acute hepatitis A. He eventually recovered with conservative management. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing and treating atypical presentations of acute hepatitis A infection.

  • Ali Someili
    Views: 116 HTML: 17 PDF: 58

    Khat is a plant that is commonly used for its stimulating effects and is chewed for its psychoactive properties. It creates feelings of euphoria that are similar to when taking amphetamines. There is an association between khat and liver injury, but the mechanism is not well known. We present three cases of khat-induced liver injury. All cases have elevated IgG and either positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA); each case has a different course and requires different management. One case improved only by stopping khat, one required a short course of steroids and the last case required treatment such as that for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH).

  • Georgina Sauqué Pintos, Arnau Antolí Gil, Gemma Rocamora Blanch, Renzo Avila Espinoza, Rosario Taco Sánchez, Núria Sabé Fernández, Xavier Solanich Moreno
    Views: 123 HTML: 10 PDF: 105

    Late onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID) is a rare variant of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), typically affecting adult patients who present with opportunistic infections (OI) and/or low CD4+ T lymphocytes. Diagnostic delay is common due to the rareness of this entity, increasing morbidity and mortality. We report on a 66-year-old male who developed a severe gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, refractory to antiviral treatment and anti-cytomegalovirus specific human immunoglobulin administration, with a fatal outcome due to an undiagnosed LOCID.

  • Laura Hernandez Perez, Aishwarya Chandra, Ruhma Ali, Hari Sharma, Richard Miller, Muhammad Hussain
    Views: 172 HTML: 26 PDF: 89

    Introduction: Biloma is an uncommon form of liver abscess composed of bile usually associated with procedures of the biliary tree and gallbladder. Cholangitis can be acute or chronic, can result in partial or complete obstruction of the flow of bile. The infection of the bile is so common, that positive blood cultures are highly characteristic. In the case of a suppurative cholangitis with signs of sepsis treatment alone with antibiotics is usually not sufficient to achieve medical remission. Multiple hepatic abscesses are often present, and the mortality approaches 100% unless prompt endoscopic or surgical relief of the obstruction and drainage of infected bile are carried out. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy is the preferred initial procedure for both establishing a definitive diagnosis and providing effective therapy.
    Case description: We present the case of a 69-year-old female patient with complex chronic comorbidities who presented with acute cholangitis initially managed with endoscopically inserted stent and later complicated by sepsis and biloma formation. The bile was drained, and it showed an infection with Candida spp. requiring antifungal therapy.
    Conclusions: The failure to perform sphincterotomy in patients with suppurative cholangitis can contribute to the backflow of bile and worse outcomes.

  • Elisa Mastrodicasa
    Views: 181 HTML: 12 PDF: 138

    Introduction: Caustic substances ingestion results in a complex syndrome. The patient characteristics and severity of injury are important prognostic predictors. The monitoring of clinical changes and the multidisciplinary approach are necessary to prevent death in the early stages of the poisoning.
    Case description: The case report describes the suicide of a woman by ingestion of a large amount of 15% sulfuric acid for suicidal purposes (15–20 ml). The initial conditions were stable, and no changes were found on a CT scan. However, the main sign was a severe metabolic acidosis. After 7 hours, haematemesis and oedema of the larynx appeared, and oro-tracheal intubation and ICU admission were necessary. Consequent progressive haemodynamic deterioration with persistent severe metabolic acidosis, increasing lactates and septic shock appeared. A new CT scan with contrast was performed 22 hours later detecting diffuse perforations and liquid in pleurae and abdomen. A pleural sample showed necrotic liquid. The death was 24 hours after ingestion and no surgical treatment was performed because of the diffuse lesions to the thoracoabdominal districts.
    Conclusions: Early detection of gastroenteric lesions and the monitoring of clinical changes are mandatory to avoid the death of the patient. Gastroenteric perforations require an immediate radiological evaluation and surgical treatment. The clinical case report states the severity of prognosis was related to high doses of sulfuric acid ingestion. The immediate metabolic acidosis is related to quick subsequent severe systemic pathological lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The severity of absorption metabolic acidosis, consequently, may be an early and prognostic sign of the late chest and abdominal lesions.

  • Haidar Hussain Barjas, Yousef Yahia , Joud Abuodeh , Farah J.N. Assaf, Adham Ammar
    Views: 215 HTML: 30 PDF: 149

    Schwann cells are found in the peripheral nervous system and can sometimes appear as benign hamartoma lesions in various parts of the body. Although rare in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, they have been observed in the colon.
    Recently, mucosal Schwann cell hamartomas of the GI tract have been studied, and it was discovered that they had yet to be investigated up to 2009. In this context, we present the case of a 60-year-old man who was found to have lesions in the transverse colon during a routine colonoscopy. No further investigations were conducted since these lesions have not been associated with any risk of malignancy transformation and have not been linked to any inherited syndromes.

  • Clara Long, Abdulrahman Al-Abdulmalek, Jonathan Lai, David G. Haegert, Stephane Isnard, Denis Cournoyer, Jean-Pierre Routy
    Views: 587 HTML: 33 PDF: 340

    Background: Autoimmune diseases are not contraindications for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapy in patients with cancer. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are frequently observed in patients receiving ICIs including dermatitis, thyroiditis, colitis, and pneumonitis. Thrombocytopenic purpura, aplasia, and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are rarely observed during ICIs.
    Case description: We report the case of a male patient with pre-existing untreated HLA B27 and ankylosing spondylitis with gastric cancer and liver metastases. The 79-year-old man was treated with anti-HER2 trastuzumab and anti-PD-1 nivolumab. Seventeen days after the seventh cycle of treatment, he presented at the emergency department with acute fever, confusion, and hypotension. Laboratory results showed pancytopenia, and elevation of ferritin and triglyceride. No infections were detected. Although not seen in a bone marrow biopsy, clinical presentation, and absence of infection, together with an H-score of 263, indicated HLH. The patient was treated with dexamethasone for four days and discharged on a tapering dose of steroids. At the two-month follow-up, clinical presentation was normal and blood test almost normalised. At 8 months, no liver metastases were observed.
    Conclusions: In a patient with a pre-existing autoimmune condition, immunotherapy led to the development of HLH, which was controlled by glucocorticoid. Absence of the feature of haemophagocytosis in the bone marrow biopsy did not exclude the diagnosis, as HLH can occur in the spleen or in the liver. Glucocorticoid therapy did not prevent the anti-cancer effect of ICIs, and liver metastases disappeared 8 months post-HLH. This case warrants further research on the interplay between autoimmunity and ICI response, as well as ICI-induced irAEs.

  • Pathan Mohamad Rafe Iqbal, Ossama Sajeh Maadarani, Zouheir Ibrahim Bitar
    Views: 669 HTML: 168 PDF: 570

    Background: Tirzepatide is a novel glucagon-like peptide 1/glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GLP-1/GIP) receptor agonist. It was recently approved for diabetes control and weight reduction in non-diabetic patients.
    Case description: We report the first case of ketoacidosis after the use of tirzepatide in an obese non-diabetic patient, secondary to the possibility of starvation ketoacidosis and insulin resistance.
    Conclusion: The dual-acting GLP-1 and GIP receptor agonists, tirzepatide, can induce ketoacidosis in obese non-diabetic patients.

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