2023: Vol 10 No 3
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A previously healthy adolescent male was admitted with paraesthesia of his arms and legs. He admitted to daily recreational nitrous oxide use for the previous 3–4 months. He was found to have severe vitamin B12 deficiency, while magnetic resonance imaging of his spine showed T2 hyperintensity within the dorsal columns. This was suggestive of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. He was treated with intramuscular injections of hydroxocobalamin and showed moderate improvement 1 month post-discharge.
Japanese encephalitis virus triggered overlapping Miller Fischer syndrome with Bickerstaff encephalitis in a young Filipino cruise line workerViews: 374 HTML: 72 PDF: 288
Japanese encephalitis virus is an RNA flavivirus and one of the rare pathogens that can cause encephalitis. The main vector is the Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito. The virus is very close in pathophysiology and structure to the West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. It is endemic in Asia and Western Pacific areas, mostly during the summer; only a few cases have been reported outside those regions. We present the case of a young Filipino cruise line male worker with signs and symptoms of Japanese encephalitis concomitantly with Miller Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. The patient developed obtundation, ataxia, areflexia, flaccid paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia, which were preceded by a few days of constitutional symptoms (fever, malaise, fatigue and anorexia). Physical examination showed various stages of erythema nodosum on the lower extremities. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was positive for anti-GQ1b, West Nile IgG and Japanese encephalitis IgM. Despite the neurological complications and bradyarrhythmia occurring during hospitalization, the patient recovered completely under our regimen.
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Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection infrequently reported in non-tropical regions. Although classically described as a biphasic illness, unusual clinical manifestations have been reported, including a previous case of a lung abscess associated with this causative agent. We present the case of a 49-year-old man with a new diagnosis of two liver abscesses associated with leptospirosis.
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Caroli disease is a rare congenital pathology caused by mutation of the PKHD1 gene (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1), also responsible for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Characterized by segmental and multifocal dilatation of the large intrahepatic bile ducts, classic disease involves only malformation of the biliary tract. The association with congenital hepatic fibrosis is called Caroli syndrome. We describe the case of an 84-year-old man with Caroli syndrome diagnosed in 1997 by liver biopsy. The CT scan revealed massive hepatomegaly, extending to the pelvic region, and almost total replacement of the parenchyma by numerous cystic formations, no evidence of bile duct dilatation, and no ascites or splenomegaly suggestive of portal hypertension. The atypical clinical presentation, with no reported complications, resembles that of a space-occupying lesion with an indolent course, previously misdiagnosed as metastatic neoplasm.
Remission of hereditary angioedema attacks associated with starting teriflunomide in a patient with multiple sclerosisViews: 334 HTML: 61 PDF: 434
Background: Hereditary angioedema is a rare hereditary and potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of cutaneous and submucosal swelling. In spite of the advances made in terms of pathophysiology, underlying mechanisms are not fully clear and this, in turn, hinders the development of effective therapies. Currently, on demand treatment is considered first-class, with few cost-effective, long-term prophylactic options.
Case presentation: Here we describe the case of a 34-year-old man diagnosed with hereditary angioedema at the age of 10, who used to suffer several angioedema attacks per month. He was given prophylactic treatment with antifibrinolytic agents and androgens without improvement. Moreover, he was treated with plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate or icatibant for on-demand treatment of moderate and severe angioedema attacks. At the age of 33, after suffering sudden vision loss and lower limb paresthesia, he was studied and diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Teriflunomide was administered at a dosage of 14 mg/day. Angioedema attacks disappeared 40 days after starting treatment.
Conclusion: Thus, we suggest considering the pathophysiologic mechanisms on which teriflunomide could be active and consider this drug carefully as an option for prophylaxis purposes. Yet, its effectiveness on this condition should be further studied.
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Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection seen in immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus and predominantly affects the lungs and central nervous system. Immunocompetent individuals very rarely develop bone involvement and only a few cases of cryptococcal osteomyelitis in patients without other comorbid conditions have been described. Only one other case of pelvic involvement, which was accompanied by lymphopaenia, has been reported. We describe the case of a 42-year-old immunocompetent man with cryptococcal hip osteomyelitis.
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Introduction: While T-wave inversions (TWI) are associated with various pathologies, they are rarely associated with cardiac memory, termed the Chatterjee phenomenon.
Case: A 76-year-old man with sick sinus syndrome with a pacemaker presented with chest tightness and new onset TWI in his precordial leads. On admission, he tested positive for COVID-19, but remained stable and only required minimal supplemental oxygen. His troponin was only slightly elevated, and EKG showed TWI throughout his precordial leads. A previous EKG had shown normal sinus rhythm without a paced rhythm or ST wave abnormalities. Interrogation of his pacemaker revealed an AV-paced rhythm. Given his chest tightness without dynamic changes in his troponin or EKG, the symptoms were considered more likely related to his COVID-19 infection, and he was discharged home.
Discussion: Aberrancies in normal cardiac conduction can result in altered electrical activation, especially for those with AV pacemakers, leading some patients to develop cardiac memory, manifesting as TWI.
Conclusion: AV-paced rhythm and narrow QRS complexes with TWI localized to precordial leads without evidence of active cardiac ischaemia may suggest cardiac memory, termed the Chatterjee phenomenon, requiring no invasive interventions.
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Introduction: Epipericardial fat necrosis (EFN) is a relatively rare benign disease that causes acute chest pain.
Case Description: A woman in her 20s presented with acute left shoulder and epigastric pain. One day before presentation, she had visited a cardiologist and an acute coronary syndrome had been ruled out. The pain worsened with deep inspiration. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a soft-tissue attenuation lesion containing a fatty centre located in the epipericardial fat at the left cardiophrenic angle. Hence, EFN was diagnosed and the pain was resolved with loxoprofen. The lesion had disappeared on a follow-up chest CT scan.
Discussion: EFN is a rare benign disease that causes acute chest pain. Approximately 70–90% of EFN cases are misdiagnosed by clinicians as other diseases.
Conclusion: In patients with acute chest pain, the correct diagnosis of EFN avoids unnecessary invasive investigations and reassures patients.
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Biliary hamartomas or von Meyenburg complexes (VMCs) are hepatic tumour-like lesions related to congenital malformation of the ductal plate, and are part of the ciliopathy spectrum of disorders. The exact pathogenesis of VMCs is unclear and it remains controversial whether they have the potential for malignant transformation. Patients are often asymptomatic and VMCs are usually encountered as an incidental finding on imaging.
We report a case of recurrent sepsis with an unidentified focus. It was later confirmed that biliary hamartomas were acting as a sanctuary for the persistent pathogenic agent. The authors hope to draw attention to the existence of this unusual focus of recurrent sepsis.
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Myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome (MES) is a rare gynaecological condition associated with the presence of a uterine fibroid and isolated polycythaemia. The main characteristic of MES is that haemoglobin returns to a normal level after removal of the myoma. MES is poorly known and still not fully understood. This case report describes the history of a patient with MES with surprising erythrocytosis resolution after myomectomy.
Multiple rib fractures, pleural effusion and right-sided diaphragmatic herniation of the colon into the chest associated with chronic cough after COVID-19Views: 289 HTML: 52 PDF: 384
Rib fractures are an infrequent consequence of severe cough. In some patients, undetected rib fractures can lead to life-threatening outcomes. The case of a 73-year-old man who presented with shortness of breath and a worsening dry cough from a SARS-CoV-2 infection for 4 weeks is described. In the emergency department, he was found to be hypoxic and hypotensive. Imaging studies revealed a large right pleural effusion, multiple rib fractures, and right-sided herniation of the colon into the chest. He was admitted to the cardiothoracic intensive care unit where he underwent a flexible bronchoscopy, right video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, evacuation of a haemothorax, complete decortication, and repair of a diaphragmatic hernia. This case is an unusual presentation of an amalgamation of rare complications resulting from an unrelenting, poorly controlled SARS-CoV-2 infection cough that prompted rapid recognition and swift action.
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Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a diagnostic tool used to investigate mediastinal lesions. It has a good safety profile, but there are rare accounts of potentially deadly complications. The present article describes one such complication: pericardial empyema.
A 70-year-old man underwent EBUS-TBNA for the differential diagnosis of a pulmonary mass with multiple mediastinal adenopathies. Two weeks after the procedure he developed chest pain, shortness of breath and fever, with rapid progression to hypotension, tachycardia and low peripheral saturation. He was diagnosed with purulent pericarditis with cardiac tamponade. Pericardial drainage and antibiotic therapy were employed with successful recovery from obstructive disease and septic shock.