2023: Vol 10 No 2
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A 45-year-old Japanese woman presented with difficulty moving her left shoulder. Ten months previously, the day after she had received her second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, a severe stabbing pain occurred in her entire left upper extremity. The pain resolved within 2 weeks, although she developed difficulty moving her left shoulder. A left winged scapula was observed. Electromyography showed left upper brachial plexopathy with acute axonal involvement and abundant acute denervation potentials, consistent with Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS). PTS should be considered in patients with post-neuralgic motor paralysis of the unilateral upper extremity, which can occur after COVID-19 vaccination.
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Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a form of interstitial lung disease that develops in response to acute lung injury. SARS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of lung and extrapulmonary disease, but there are few data suggesting an association between COVID-19 and OP. We describe a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed severe progressive OP with significant morbidity.
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Introduction: Spontaneous renal haemorrhage is a rare condition with potentially serious complications.
Case description: We describe a 76-year-old woman with a 3-day history of fever and malaise, with no associated trauma. She was admitted to our emergency room with signs of shock. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed an extensive right kidney haematoma. Despite fast surgical management, the patient died less than 24 h after admission.
Conclusion: Spontaneous renal haemorrhage should be quickly identified due to its fatal complications. Early diagnosis leads to a better prognosis.
A pregnant woman with an extra cardiac cavity: an acquired iatrogenic complication— A case report and literature reviewViews: 256 HTML: 54 PDF: 209
According to the modified World Health Organization (WHO) classification, mechanical valves pose a high maternal risk and complications for pregnant women with heart disease. Left atrial appendage aneurysm (LAAA) is a rare condition that can manifest clinically in several ways or remain silent for a long time and can be either congenital or acquired. We present the case of a pregnant woman who had a LAAA discovered several years after her last mitral valve replacement.
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In light chain amyloidosis, a reduction in dFLC to below 40 mg/l is a prerequisite for organ recovery as nearly half of the patients who achieve very good partial haematological responses have improvement in the function of the involved organ. We describe a patient who developed new-onset cardiac amyloidosis despite a post-treatment reduction in dFLC to <10 mg/l.
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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterised by B-amyloid deposition in the walls of small to medium sized arteries of the cerebral cortex and the leptomeninges. In a significant proportion of patients, CAA is the probable cause of non-traumatic primary cerebral haemorrhage, particularly in those who are over 55 years of age and have controlled blood pressure. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is an uncommon and aggressive subtype of CAA, which is thought to be caused by an immune reaction to the deposits of B-amyloid. It has a variety of presentations that can mimic other focal and diffuse neurological disorders. Radiographically, its classic presentation is asymmetric cortical or subcortical white matter hyperintense foci due to multiple microhaemorrhages on T2-weighted or fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Although definite diagnosis requires brain and leptomeningeal biopsy, diagnostic criteria for probable CAA-ri based on a combination of clinical and radiological features were validated in 2015. We describe a patient with probable CAA-ri mimicking stroke and review the clinical and radiological features important for a proper differential diagnosis between ischaemic stroke (IS) and CAA-ri, and its subsequent appropriate treatment.
Cardiogenic shock associated with acute norovirus gastroenteritis: what is needed to prove causality?Views: 648 HTML: 174 PDF: 295
Acute myocarditis is a well-recognized condition attributable to a variety of viral illnesses. Common viral aetiologies include enteroviruses including coxsackie, adenovirus, influenza, echovirus, parvovirus B19 and herpesvirus. A high index of suspicion, early diagnosis, and prompt management with supportive anti-failure measures, and in selected cases immunosuppressive therapies including high-dose steroids, might be considered for better outcomes. The authors report a case of sudden onset of acute heart failure complicated by cardiogenic shock caused by viral myocarditis in a patient who initially presented with norovirus gastroenteritis. She had no previous cardiac history or significant cardiovascular risk factors. Prompt medical management for cardiogenic shock for norovirus-induced myocarditis was started, her symptoms gradually improved, and she was discharged safely on regular follow-up.
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Introduction: Ischaemic anterior thalamic lesions are rare and can present with disturbances of behaviour and memory. We describe a patient with post-cardiac arrest thalamic stroke.
Case description: A 63-year-old man presented with cardiac arrest, was resuscitated after receiving life support, and showed no lesions on computed tomography. Three days later, he presented with short-term memory disturbance and disorientation, with a de novo anterior thalamic lesion.
Conclusion: The anterior thalamic nucleus, supplied by the posterior communicating artery, is part of the Papez circuit and has a role in modulating behaviour and memory. An anterior thalamic syndrome presents with no sensory-motor deficits.
A rare cause of recurrent haemolytic anaemia: carboplatin and paclitaxel-induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemiaViews: 425 HTML: 62 PDF: 261
Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia (DIIHA) is a rare but serious complication affecting approximately 1 in 1,000,000 patients, but its incidence might be underestimated due to misdiagnosis. Several factors should be considered to ensure an accurate diagnosis, including previous medical history, comorbidities, drug history, the temporal relationship between drug exposure and symptom onset, haemolytic features, and comorbidities in suspected cases. The authors report a case of DIIHA caused by combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel complicated with haeme pigment- induced acute kidney injury.
Aortic dissection in a patient with novel frameshift COL5A1 variant of classical Ehlers-Danlos syndromeViews: 263 HTML: 74 PDF: 222
Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is one of the 13 subtypes of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, which has the major clinical criteria of hyperextensibility skin, atrophic scars, and generalised joint hypermobility. The occurrence of aortic dissection has been described in some subtypes of Ehlers-Danlos, but it has a rare association with the cEDS subtype. This case report discusses a 39-year-old female with a past medical history of transposition of great arteries with a Senning repair at the age of 18 months and controlled hypertension with medication, who presents a spontaneous distal aortic dissection. The diagnosis of cEDS was made using the major criteria, and a novel frameshift mutation in COL5A1 was discovered. The reported case emphasises that in patients with cEDS, vascular fragility may be a complication.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
This Letter comments on the following case report:
Abu-Abaa M, Dawood G, Arshad H, Mousa A, Jumaah O. Acute ischaemic stroke by a different mechanism. EJCRIM 2022;9:doi:10.12890/2022_003618.