Vol. 5 No. 2
An Unusual Case of Mycotic Popliteal Aneurysm Presenting as Recurrent Salmonella enteritidis BacteraemiaViews: 900 HTML: 133 PDF: 466
We describe a patient with a Salmonella enteritidis mycotic aneurysm. A 91-year-old man presented with recurrent episodes of S. enteritidis bacteraemia 2 months apart. During the second presentation, he underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the left lower limb that revealed rupture of the popliteal artery with a popliteal fossa collection. This was aspirated and cultures grew S. enteritidis. He underwent endovascular stenting and received a prolonged course of antibiotics. Popliteal artery mycotic aneurysm should be considered as a differential in patients presenting with unilateral painful leg swelling and bacteraemia from microorganisms with a propensity for endovascular infections.
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome: A Diagnosis to Consider in a Woman with Right Upper Quadrant Abdominal Pain without GallstonesViews: 2979 HTML: 1813 PDF: 797
A young woman presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain exacerbated by movement and breathing. Extensive evaluation revealed no gallstones or any other specific cause. Urine polymerase chain reaction results for Chlamydia trachomatis were positive, so the clinical diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome was confirmed. This type of localized peritonitis is thought to be a complication of an ascending genital infection leading to pelvic inflammatory disease. The diagnosis is established on clinical grounds after excluding alternative, more common conditions. Proper antibiotic treatment usually leads to recovery and prevents long-term complications.
Views: 1550 HTML: 245 PDF: 468
We present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with fever of unknown origin after a long period of convalescence from a previous admission to a chronic care hospital. During the admission, multiple combinations of antibiotic and antifungal treatments were prescribed, but with persistent fever and, eventually, neutropenia (200 lymphocytes, 0 neutrophils). Given the suspicion of infection at bone marrow level, a biopsy was performed as was serology of Leishmania, both diagnostic determinations.
Treatment with amphotericin B liposomal resulted in a good outcome.
Views: 1225 HTML: 232 PDF: 516
Sarcoidosis is a risk factor for the development of cryptococcal infection due to dysfunction at T-cell level. Its rarity may, however, delay diagnosis and treatment. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man, diagnosed with sarcoidosis since 1999. He had never received systemic immunomodulatory therapy, such as corticosteroid therapy. In 2012, he was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis and treated with fluconazole. In April 2013, he presented with symptoms compatible with central nervous system (CNS) infection, namely, Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. He was treated with amphotericin B, followed by fluconazole. The clinical outcome was favourable.
Views: 1994 HTML: 388 PDF: 1064
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis is a rare entity in adults. It can be triggered by allergens such as drugs, food, or insect bites. We present a case of an adult male with a cutaneous IgA vasculitis of palpable purpura after eating canned sardines.
Views: 984 HTML: 146 PDF: 468
Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare inherited disorder associated with abnormal platelet function. Non-surgical bleeding is common and can be life-threatening. A 70-year-old woman with GT presented with a 3 week history of melena and asthenia. She had hemoglobin of 3.8 g/dL. Both upper and lower endoscopies were inconclusive. Video capsule endoscopy showed multiple angioectasias and erosions in the distal ileum. Following several days of recurring intestinal hemorrhage, only treatment with recombinant activated factor VII proved to be effective, enabling patient stabilization with no further bleeding. Control and prevention of bleeding among these patients is imperative and remains challenging.
Views: 1700 HTML: 317 PDF: 1247
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction, resulting in muscle fatiguability and weakness.
The pathological characteristics of the disorder include ocular weakness resulting in diplopia and/or ptosis. More generally, the disease can result in fluctuant weakness of skeletal muscle, predominantly affecting ocular, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Autoimmunity in this instance is mediated by IgG anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies that results in an impaired structure of postsynaptic neurotransmission. Approximately 15% of patients with myasthenia gravis present with bulbar symptoms, of which isolated bulbar symptoms are seen only on occasion. As with our patient, this presentation is most commonly seen in men with late-onset myasthenia gravis.
We present a case of an 83-year-old male who presented with a 1 year history of dysphagia for solids and fatigable dysarthria. Following a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, he was initiated on corticosteroid treatment. He later descended into myasthenic crisis, requiring invasive ventilation measures due to a failure of both non-invasive ventilation and intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) to achieve therapeutic goals.
Views: 1065 HTML: 432 PDF: 444
A young woman presented with initial epileptic seizures and multiple ‘mass-like’ lesions seen on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Given this presentation and her past medical history, a cerebral biopsy was performed to rule out malignancy, but showed a necrotizing cerebral vasculitis. We describe this case to reinforce the view that primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cerebral mass, even if uncommon.