2023: Vol 10 No 1

2023: Vol 10 No 1
  • Justine Chinnappan, Murtaza Hussain, Dominic Awuah, Ekwevugbe Ogbon, Ghassan Bachuwa, Philip McDonald
    Views: 563 HTML: 91 PDF: 445

    Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection is a common and costly healthcare-associated infection. Extraintestinal C. difficile infection is rarely encountered, especially in isolation. We present a unique case of abdominal wall abscess presenting six months following gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. The patient was managed with computed tomography (CT) guided drainage of the abscess, placement of a drainage catheter, and aggressive broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for a prolonged duration over multiple admissions. 

  • Ana Cochicho Ramalho, Sofia Marques Santos, João Abecasis, Rui Rodrigues , Francisco Araujo , Helena Cantante
    Views: 312 HTML: 54 PDF: 350

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a well-described infectious disease, one with increased morbidity and mortality being the third or fourth most common life-threatening infection syndrome.
    Abiotrophia defectiva is a non-motile, catalase negative, Gram-positive coccus in a chain, which can be isolated from the oral cavity, intestinal, and genitourinary tracts. IE due to this agent is rare and associated with heart valve destruction, congestive heart failure, and high embolisation rates, these being the major mortality causes.
    We present a case of IE due to this agent, complicated with a stroke, and splenic and renal infarction, with the need for aortic valve replacement. 
    This article highlights the gaps of knowledge left by the rarity of this disease, which range from its diagnosis to its treatment, and what we need to mitigate such gaps, supported with a case description of a successful treatment of this infection.

  • Filipa Taborda, Duarte André Ferreira, Teresa Mendonça, Fátima Farinha
    Views: 480 HTML: 85 PDF: 379

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and axial spondyloarthritis (axial SpA) are differential diagnoses of lower back pain. While the latter is considered to be an inflammatory disease, DISH is thought to be a metabolic condition. The authors report a case of a 34-year-old man who presented with a one-year history of axial lower back pain associated to migratory polyarthritis, buttock and heel pain. Imaging revealed contiguous calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical segment, meeting major criteria for DISH. However, he also exhibited signs of bilateral sacroiliitis highly suggestive of axial SpA for which he initiated biological therapy.

  • Ramiro Sá Lopes, Ana Sara Monteiro, Rosário Saez, Carlos Candeias, Catarina Mendonça
    Views: 603 HTML: 731 PDF: 366

    Early malignant syphilis is an uncommon form of secondary syphilis and characterized by pleomorphic multiple round-to-oval papules, some with necrosis, and associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Usually seen in immunosuppressed patients, mainly those infected with HIV, it can also be observed in immunocompetent patients.
    We report a case in a young healthy woman with the characteristic features of the disease and with favourable skin lesion evolution after appropriate treatment with penicillin.

  • Mark Christopher Arokiaraj
    Views: 320 HTML: 48 PDF: 308

    This is a report of a patient who presented with iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, and was treated with pharmaco-invasive and pharmaco- mechanic methods using coronary balloon and mechanical disruption of clots with coronary 014 wire.
    A 65-year-old male presented with acute deep vein thrombosis extending from the left common iliac to the popliteal vein. The patient had signi cant swelling and pain. An inferior vena cava (IVC) lter was inserted, and catheter-directed thrombolysis was planned. A technical difficulty was encountered entering the proximal common iliac vein. Hence, a 014 balance middle weight (BMW) wire with coronary balloon support was introduced through a Cordis® 6 F. diagnostic catheter, and the 014 wire was advanced with guitaring technique up to the femoral vein. Thereafter, the coronary balloon was ruptured at high pressure, and thrombolysis using streptokinase was performed along the balloon tract up to the ostium of the common iliac vein. The patient symptomatically improved signi cantly and is currently on anticoagulants. Follow-up after one year showed minimal residual oedema, and less pain in the ankle region.
    Pharmaco-mechanical treatment is possible using coronary balloon dilatations and thrombolysis through a ruptured coronary balloon. Mechanical disruption of clots to some extent is feasible using 014 wire by a guitaring technique.

  • Sumaiya Hafiz, Sarah Al Qassimi, Ali Saeed Wahla, Mahmoud El-Kaissi, Mateen Uzbek, Irfan Shafiq
    Views: 287 HTML: 54 PDF: 305

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common autosomal recessive disorder which is mainly found in Caucasians but has also been reported in Asian populations. CF is primarily caused by mutations in the CFTR gene which regulates the transport of chloride ions across the cell membrane. We describe the cases of two siblings with CF diagnosed with the rare missense mutation c.80G>T, which has only been referenced once in the literature and shows a possible association with classical form of CF.


  • Telma Alves, Diogo Leal, Ricardo Rodrigues, Carolina Terra, Sandra Santos, Joana Cascais Costa, Fàtima Silva
    Views: 524 HTML: 59 PDF: 298

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) atresia is a rare congenital vascular malformation. We describe the case of a 20-year-old woman with IVC atresia who presented with a 3-month history of fatigue, oedema of the lower limbs and episodes of lipothymia. Transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac catheterization were performed, revealing interruption of the IVC with circulation through the azygos and hemiazygos system. An abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scan confirmed the findings, demonstrating the absence of the IVC below the renal veins. Blood tests did not reveal any relevant results. These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of IVC atresia, a rare condition with no standard treatment. As a surgical approach was not possible, pharmacological measures were implemented for primary prevention of possible thrombotic events.

  • Kenya Ie, Kosuke Ishizuka, Tsubasa Sakai, Iori Motohashi, Shiko Asai, Chiaki Okuse
    Views: 442 HTML: 45 PDF: 222

    A 32-year-old woman presented to the outpatient clinic with persistent fever, anterior neck pain, and palpitations over the past week which developed 2 days after she had received the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. On examination, the patient’s heart rate was 140 beats per minute and the thyroid gland was tender on palpation. Laboratory studies showed a low serum TSH level with elevated free thyroxine. Thyroid ultrasound revealed low-echoic lesions compatible with the site of tenderness. The patient was diagnosed with subacute thyroiditis and treatment was initiated with acetaminophen and propranolol, which resulted in symptom resolution within 2 weeks. Clinicians should be aware that subacute thyroiditis may occur within a few days following COVID-19 vaccination, especially in patients with anterior cervical pain with no significant abnormal pharyngeal findings and/or severe palpitations, because differentiating them from early non-specific adverse reactions can be challenging.

  • Falgun Gosai, Neha Gosai
    Views: 233 HTML: 220 PDF: 220

    Strangles is a contagious upper respiratory tract infection primarily affecting equines. It is rare disease with zoonotic transmission. It is caused by the bacterium, Streptococcus equi. We present the rare case of strangles in an elderly patient complicated by bacteraemia, osteomyelitis and native valve endocarditis. The patient was treated successfully with appropriate antibiotics and no surgical intervention was needed. In an age of accelerated emerging zoonosis, this is an important entity clinicians should be aware of to prevent delay in diagnosis and poor outcome.

  • Francisco Javier Teigell Muñoz, María Mateos-González, Elsa Bernal-Hertfelder, Ana Sánchez de Torre, María García-Ferrón, Carmen de Cáceres Velasco, Coralia Bueno Muiño
    Views: 494 HTML: 77 PDF: 344

    Infective endocarditis is a relatively uncommon infection that requires a high index of suspicion, which can sometimes delay its diagnosis. It requires several weeks of intravenous antibiotics, which traditionally requires long hospital stays. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with high activity against several Gram-positive pathogens. Its weekly administration allows the outpatient management of complicated infections requiring parenteral treatment, but only a few cases of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis treated with dalbavancin have been reported in the literature. We here report a case of successful treatment with dalbavancin of an infectious endocarditis caused by E. faecalis.

  • Nageshwari Palanisamy, Justine Chinnappan, Ghassan Bachuwa
    Views: 458 HTML: 190 PDF: 418

    Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is a rare clinical condition presenting as painful lesions mostly on the lower extremities. We present a case of LV with peripheral neuropathy in a young man initially misdiagnosed and treated for cellulitis. He was started on aspirin, pentoxifylline and apixaban immediately after the diagnosis of LV. However, pain management was a real challenge for the clinicians. Hence, he was later treated with epoprostenol and amlodipine for vasodilation, steroids for any possible inflammation, and antibiotics to treat superimposed infection. Irrespective of all the above, his pain was uncontrollable, and he finally received ketamine infusions along with narcotics, achieving better pain control. Various studies support the use of intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-TNF agents for pain relief in idiopathic and secondary LV. Intermittent low-dose dabigatran has also been found to be effective in the maintenance of remission in LV. However, no large studies have yet been conducted to confirm the efficacy of these medications.

  • Mouna Snoussi, Abir Derbel, Yosr Hentati Hentati, Zeineb Mnif, Sameh Marzouk , Zouheir Bahloul
    Views: 343 HTML: 44 PDF: 264

    Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder; RDD with oropharyngeal involvement is extremely rare, especially in adults. A 65-year-old woman with a complaint of progressive dyspnoea since 2016 presented with laryngeal involvement of RDD. A laryngoscopy examination revealed two solid, polypoid masses in the subglottic region, and a laryngeal biopsy concluded chronic in ammation without signs of malignancy. A second biopsy of axillary lymph nodes was performed, supporting the diagnosis of histiocytosis. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and then lost to follow-up. In 2019, she suffered from dyspnoea and a hoarse voice. Laryngoscopy examination showed a polypoid lesion causing airway obstruction at 70% and thickening of the lateral wall of the cavum. Physical examination found left axillary and submandibular adenopathy, and computed tomography revealed thickening of the supraglottic larynx narrowing the laryngeal pathway. Lymphadenectomy with immunohistochemical analysis revealed typical protein positive S-100 histiocytes and emperipolesis. The patient was treated with high doses of corticosteroids for six weeks then these were progressively decreased. The outcome was favourable; the laryngeal lesion disappeared after two weeks of treatment.